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Psychotherapy High Wycombe - Last updated 28 October 2021

DSM Online - Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

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DSM-IV: Tourette's Disorder

This Tic Disorder is diagnosed when BOTH motor AND vocal tics ("sudden, rapid, recurrent, non rhythmic, stereotyped motor movement orvocalization") are experienced persistently. (Named for Gilles de la Tourette)

Diagnostic criteria for 307.23 Tourette's Disorder
(Warning!)

These criteria are obsolete! Current criteria.

A. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics have been present at some time during the illness, although not necessarily concurrently. (A tic is a sudden, rapid, recurrent, non rhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization.)

B. The tics occur many times a day (usually in bouts) nearly every day or intermittently throughout a period of more than 1 year, and during this period there was never a tic-free period of more than 3 consecutive months.

C. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

D. The onset is before age 18 years.

E. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g. stimulants) or a general medical condition (e.g. Huntington's disease or postviral encephalitis).

Based on the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition APA

See also: Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder

Research sources

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceAbela, Marcelle Bartolo. Hypnotherapy for Tourette's Syndrome: Evidence for its Effectiveness, and Treatment Protocols for Use, in Familial and Non-Fa

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceAnbar, RD, and Hall, HR. Childhood Habit Cough Treated with Self-Hypnosis. J Pediatr 2004:144:213-17.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceAzrin , NH , and Peterson , AL . Habit Reversal for the treatment of Tourette Syndrome. Behav. Res. Ther . Vol. 26, No. 4, pp 347-351, 1988.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceBabel , T.B., Warnke, P.C., and Ostertag, C.B. Immediate and long term outcome after infrathalamic and thalamic lesioning for intractable Tourette's s

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceBarr, CL., and Sandor, P. Current Status of Genetic Studies of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. Can J Psychiatry 1998; 43: 351-357.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceBergin, Ann, Waranch, H. Richard, Brown, Janice, Carson, Kathryn, and Singer, Harvey S. Relaxation Therapy in Tourette Syndrome: A Pilot Study. Pediat

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceBruggeman, Richard, van der Linden, Chris, Buitelaar, Jan K., Gericke, George S., Hawkridge, Susan M., and Temlett, James A. Risperidone Versus Pimozi

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceCanavan, AGM, and Powell, GE. The Efficacy of Several Treatments of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome as assessed in a single case. Behav. Res. Ther. 1

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceCarr, James E., and Bailey, Jon S. A Brief Behavior Therapy Protocol for Tourette Syndrome. J. Behav. Ther. and Exp. Psychiat. Vol.27, No. 1, 1996: 33

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceChappell, Phillip B., McSwiggan-Hardin, Maureen T., Scahill, Lawrence, Rubenstein, Michelle, Walker, David E., Cohen, Donald J., Leckman, James F. Vid

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceChappell, Phillip B., Riddle, Mark A., Scahill, Lawrence, Lynch, Kimberly A., Schultz, Robert, Arnsten, Amy, Leckman, James F., and Cohen, Donald J. G

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceCoffey, Barbara J., Biederman, Joseph, Geller, Daniel A., Spencer, Thomas, Park, Kenneth S., Shapiro, Stephanie J., and Garfield, Stacey B. The Course

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceCohen, Konald J., and Leckman, James F. Tourette's Syndrome: Advances in Treatment and Research. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry , Vol. 23, No. 2, March, 1

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceCulbertson, Frances M. A Four-Step Hypnotherapy Model for Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Vol. 1, No. 4, Apri

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceDion, Yves, Annable, Lawrence, Sandor, Paul, Chouinaard, Guy. Risperidone in the Treatment of Tourette Syndrome: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Tr

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceErenberg, Gerald, Cruse, Robert P., and Rothner, A. David. The Natural History of Tourette Syndrome: A Follow-Up Study. Ann Neurol. 22:383-385, 1987.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceEvers, RAF and van de Wetering, BJM. A Treatment Model for Motor Tics Based on a Specific Tension-Reduction Technique. J. Behav. Ther. & Psychiat. 199

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceFahn, S., et al. Definitions and Classification of Tic Disorders. Arch Neurol . 1993: 50 : 1013-1016

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceFinney, JW, Rapoff , MA , Hall, CL, Christophersen ER. Replication and Social Validation of Habit Reversal Treatment of Tics. Behavior Therapy, 14, 11

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceFriedman, S. Case Study- Self-Control in the “Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome: Case Study with 18-month Follow-up.” Journal of Consultin

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceGarvey, Marjorie A., Giedd, Jay, and Swedo, Susan E. PANDAS: The Search for Environmental Triggers of Pediatric Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Lessons fr

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceGilbert, D.L., Sethuraman, G., Sine, L., Peters, S., and Sallee, F.R. Tourette's syndrome improvement with pergolide in a randomized, double-blind, cr

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceGoetz, Christopher G., Tanner, Caroline M., and Klawans, Harold L. Fluphenazine and Multifocal Tic Disorders. Arch Neurol 1984;41:271-272.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceGoetz, Christopher G., Tanner, Caroline M., Wilson, Robert S., Carroll, Susan, Como , Peter G., and Shannon, Kathleen M. Clonidine and Gilles de la To

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceGonce, M. and Barbeau. Seven Cases of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome: Partial Relied with Clonazepam: A Pilot Study. The Canadian Journal of Neurolo

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceHutzel, RR; Platzek, D, Logue , PE . Control of Symptoms of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome by Self-Monitoring. . Behav. Ther. And Exp. Psychiatr. Vo

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceJankovic, Joseph, Glaze, Daniel G., and Frost, James D., Jr. Effect of tetrabenazine on tics and sleep of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Neurology

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKaplan, EL, Anthony, BF, Ayoub, EM, Wannamaker, LW. A 2-year longitudinal study of streptococcal infections in an isolated community: antibody dynamic

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKaplan, EL, Ferrieri, P., Wannamaker, LW., Comparison of the antibody response to streptococcal cellular and extracellular antigens in acute pharyngit

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKaplan, EL, Gerber, MA: Group A, Group C, and Group B b-hemolytic streptococcal infections in Feigin, RD, Cherry, JD (editors) Textbook of Pediatric I

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKaplan, EL. Rothermel, CD, Johnson, DR. Antistreptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B titers: Normal values for Children Ages 2 to 12 in the United

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKohen, Daniel P., and Botts, Pamela, “Relaxation Imagery (Self-Hypnosis) in Tourette Syndrome: Experience with four Children,” Am J of Clin Hypnosis ,

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKohen, Daniel P., Applications of Relaxation and Mental Imagery (Self-Hypnosis) for Habit Problems. Pediatric Annals 20:3 March, 1991: 136-144.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKohen, Daniel P., M.D., “Ericksonian Communication and Hypnotic strategies in the management of ties and Tourette Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKohen, Daniel P., M.D., Coping with the stress of Tourette Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: the use of Self-Hypnosis Techniques Australian Journa

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKurlan, R. Tourette's Syndrome: Current concepts. Neurology, December 1989: 1625-1630.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKurlan, Roger, and the Tourette's Syndrome Study Group. Treatment of ADHD in children with tics: A randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2002;58:527-

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKurlan, Roger, Lichter, David, and Hewitt, David. Sensory tics in Tourette's syndrome. Neurology, May, 1989 Volume 39: 731-733.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKurlan, Roger, Majumdar, Lisa, Deeley, Cheryl, Musholkar, Govind S., Plumb, Sandra, and Como , Peter G. Z Controlled Trial of Propoxyphene and Naltrex

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceKurlan, Roger. New treatments for tics? Neurology 2001;56;580-581.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceLazarus, JE. Commentary on “Tics and Problem Behaviors in Schoolchildren: Prevalence, Characterization, and Associations” in The Yearbook of Pediatric

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceLeckman, J.F., et al. Pathogenesis of Tourette's Syndrome, J Child Psychol Psychiatry . 1997 Jan;38(1):119-42.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceLeckman, James F., Hardin, Maureen T., Riddle, Mark A., Stevenson, John, Ort, Sharon I., and Cohen, Donald J. Clonidine Treatment of Gilles de la Tour

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceLinet, Leslie S. Tourette Syndrome, Pimozide, and School Phobia: The Neuroleptic Separation Anxiety Syndrome. AM J Psychiatry, 142(5), May, 1985: 613-

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceMarras, Connie, Andrews, David, Sime, Elspeth, and Lang, Anthony E. Botulinum toxin for simple motor tics: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clin

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceMcConville, B.J., Fogelson, M.H., Norman, A.B., Klykylo, W.M., Manderscheid, M.A., Parker, K.W., and Sanberg, P.R. (1991) Nicotine potentiation of hal

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceMcConville, B.J., Sanberg, P.R., Fogelson, M.H., King, J., Circino, P., Parker, K.W., and Norman, A.B.(1992) The effects of nicotine plus haloperidol

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceMicheli, F., Gatto, M., Lekhuniec, E., Mangone, C., Pardal, M. Fernandez, Pikielny, R., and Parera, I. Casas. Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome with Ca

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceMikkelsen, Edwin J., Detlor, Jill, and Cohen, Donald J. School Avoidance and Social Phobia Triggered by Haloperidol Patients with Tourette's Disorder.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceMizrahi, Eli M., Holtzman, David, and Tharp, Barry. Haloperidol-induced Tardive Dyskinesia in a Child with Gilles de la Tourette's Disease. Arch Neuro

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceMuhler-Vahl, K.R., Kolbe, H., Schneider, U., and Emrich, H.M. Cannabis in Movement Disorders. Forsch Komplementarmed, 6(suppl 3), 1999: 23-27.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferencePerlmutter, SJ, Leitman, SF, Garvey , MA , Hamburger,S, et al. Therapeutic plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin for obsessive-compulsive dis

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferencePeterson, Alan L. and Azrin, Nathan H. An Evaluation of Behavioral Treatments for Tourette Syndrome. Behav. Res. Ther. Vol. 30, No. 2 , 1992: 167-174.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferencePeterson, Alan L. and Azrin, Nathan H. Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Tourette Syndrome: A Review. Applied & Preventive Psychology 2:23

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceRobertson MM, Tourette Syndrome, associated conditions and the complexities of treatment. Brain 2000: 123: 425-462.

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceRobertson, Mary M., Schnieden, Vivienne, and Lees, A.J. Management of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome Using Sulpiride. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1990;

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceSallee, Floyd R., Nesbitt, Lori, Jackson , Cherry, Since, Lauren, and Sethuraman, Gopalan. Relative Efficacy of Haloperidol and Pimozide in Children a

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceSanberg, Paul R., Silver, Archie A. , Shytle, R. Doug, Philipp, Mary Katherine, Cahill, David W., Fogelson, Harold M., and McConville, Brian J. Nicoti

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceSanberg, Paul R., Silver, Archie A., Shytle, R. Doug, et al. Nicotine for the Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome. Pharmacol. Ther. Vol.74, No. 1, pp. 21

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceScahill, Larry, Chappell, Phillip B., Kim, Young S., Schultz, Robert T.,Katsovich, Lily, Shepherd, Elizabeth, Arnsten, Amy F.T., Cohen, Donald J., and

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceScahill, Lawrence, Erenberg, Gerald , Berlin , Chester M. Jr., Budman, Cathy, Cox, Barbara J., Jankovic, Joseph, Kiessling, Louise, King, Robert A., K

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceShapiro, Arthur K., Shapiro, Elaine, and Eisenkraft, Gail J. Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome with Pimozide. Am J Psychiatry 140:1183-1186,

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceShapiro, Elaine, Shapiro, Arthur K., Fulop, George, Hubbard, Michael, Mandeli, John, Norrdlie, Johanna, and Phillips, Robert A. Controlled study of Ha

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceSilver, A.A., Shytle, R.D., Philipp, M.K., and Sanberg, P.R. (1995) Transdermal nicotine in Tourette's syndrome. In: The Effects of Nicotine on Biolog

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceSilver, Archie A. Shytle, Douglas, Philipp, Mary Katherine, Wilkinson, Berney J., McConville, Brian, and Asnberg, Paul R. Transdermal Nicotine and Hal

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceSilver, Archie A., Shytle, Douglas, Sheehan, Kathy H., Sheehan, David V., Ramos, Amaya, and Sanberg, Paul R. Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Contro

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceSinger, Harvey S., Brown, Janice, Quaskey, Shirley, Rosenberg, Leon A., Mellits, E. David, and Denckla, Martha B. The Treatment of Attention-Deficit H

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceSinger, Harvey S., Wendlandt, John, Krieger, Madeline, and Giuliano, Joseph. Baclofen treatment in Tourette syndrome: A double-blind, placebo-controll

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceSnider, Lisa A., Seligman, Laura D., Ketchen, Bethany R., Levitt, Sara J., Bates, Lauren R., Garvey, Marjorie A., and Swedo, Susan E. Tics and Problem

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceState, Matthew W., Pauls, David L., and Leckman, James F. Tourette's Syndrome and Related Disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceStephens, BK., Barkey , ME. , and Hall, H. Techniques to comfort children during stressful procedures. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine , 1999. 15: 49-6

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceTansey, Michael A. A simple and a Complex Tic (Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome): Their Response to EEG Sensorimotor Rhythm Biofeedback Training. Inte

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceWu, Lianzhong, Huimin, Li, and Ling, Kang. 156 Cases of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome Treated by Acupuncture. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medici

TopicTICS AND TOURETTE SYNDROME
ReferenceYoung, Martin H., and Montano, Robert J. A New Hypnobehavioral Method for the Treatment of Children with Tourette's Disorder. American Journal of Clin

The online Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists most of the major psychological disorders and illnesses and lists the criteria that must be fulfilled in order for a diagnosis to be made. This resource is not a substitute for proper professional psychiatric diagnosis.



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Last Updated 28 October 2021 ()