Psychotherapy High Wycombe
The brain adapts to use of alcohol and some other drugs in such a way that symptoms may result when the substance is reduced or discontinued, leading to diagnosis of this Substance-Related Disorder. This varies in intensity from no detectable symptoms to extreme discomfort with withdrawal.
A. Either of the following:
(1) cessation of (or reduction in) opioid use that has been heavy and prolonged (several weeks or longer)
(2) administration of an opioid antagonist after a period of opioid use
B. Three (or more) of the following, developing within minutes to several days after Criterion A:
(1) dysphoric mood
(2) nausea or vomiting
(3) muscle aches
(4) lacrimation or rhinorrhea
(5) pupillary dilation, piloerection, or sweating
C. The symptoms in Criterion B cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
D. The symptoms are not due to a general medical condition and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder.
Based on the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition APA
|Reference||Zachariae, R., Andersen, O. K., Bjerring, P., Jorgensen, M. M. (1998). Effects of an opioid antagonist on pain intensity and withdrawal reflexes durin|
|Topic||HYPNOTHERAPY RESEARCH MISC|
|Reference||Ohrbach R, Patterson DR, Carrougher G, Gibran N. Hypnosis after an adverse response to opioids in an ICU burn patient. Clin J Pain. 1998;14(2):167-175|
The online Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists most of the major psychological disorders and illnesses and lists the criteria that must be fulfilled in order for a diagnosis to be made. This resource is not a substitute for proper professional psychiatric diagnosis.
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Bill Frost - Clinical Hypnotherapist 2012
Last Updated 22 January 2021 ()